Some exemplary rules have been implemented to demonstrate GRAPE's features. The rules are collected in four rulesets:

Simple Rules

Some classic shape grammar rules from the literature.
Here classic rules, parametric rules and labelled rules are shown.

Start using the simple rules.

The Palladian grammar

This ruleset is a partial implementation of the Palladian grammar by Stiny and Mitchell (1978)

  1. Start with an empty canvas.
  2. Click through the rules. Some rules are obligatory in order for the derivation to progress.
  3. The ruleset changes according to the current state of the derivation.

Some of the rules are parametric. Emergence is not required.

Try out the Palladian grammar.

Kindergarten grammars

Some rules of the Kingerarten grammar by Stiny (1980), which is based on Fröbel's building blocks. Here the rules for one spatial relation with eight different labelings are examined.The geometric relation remains constant, the labeling varies.
This ruleset showcases three dimensional rules using faces and labels.

Go to the Kindergarten grammar.


  • Economou A, 1999, "The symmetry lessons from Froebel building gifts" Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 26(1) 75 – 90
  • Stiny G, 1980, "Introduction to shape and shape grammars" Environment and Planning B 7(3) 343 – 351
  • Stiny G, Mitchell W J, 1978, "The Palladian grammar" Environment and Planning B 5(1) 5 – 18
  • Stiny G, 1980, "Kindergarten grammars: designing with Froebel's building gifts" Environment and Planning B 7(4) 409 – 462
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